My personal lens preferences: I typically use a focal length of anywhere between 14 to 300mm, depending on what I'm shooting. I'm talking about the focal length for a "full frame" 35mm sensor (for a "crop" sensor or medium format sensor these numbers would not be the same). I hesitate to make too many generalizations, because there are always exceptions, but I'll make some anyway:

Zooms vs prime lenses:
A zoom lens has a focal length range, e.g. 24-105mm, whereas a prime lens is just a single (i.e. fixed) focal length (e.g. 50mm).
Zoom advantages:

Zoom disadvantages:

My preferred lenses

First I will speak generically about lenses designed for a "full frame" 35mm sensor - independent of any particular brand.

Single lens: If I can only carry one lens around I'll generally go for f/2.8 24-70 or f/4 24-105 zoom. I might prefer a f/4 14-35 zoom if I'm doing landscape. I might prefer a large-aperture prime (e.g. f/1.8 50mm) if I'm going into a low-light situation, or doing strictly portraits. Obviously I might prefer a macro lens (e.g. f/2.8 100mm) if I'm doing strictly macro work.

If possible, what I really like is to carry around two cameras, each with a different lens. For example a 14-35mm f/4 zoom and a 85mm f/2. I tend to not be interested in having a wide aperture with wide angle lenses (because I want most of the frame in focus) but find I'm more likely to want a wide aperture with a portrait (85mm) lens or other telephoto lens because I'm more interested in a nice background blur with these longer shots. (This is a personal preference of mine - I've never heard anybody else say the same thing.) I might also carry around a third lens in a bag for possible lens change, but I don't like to change lenses a great deal. A great stratgey can be to shoot with a friend and have each person carry different lenses so you can swap and no single person has to carry a lot.

Next, I will focus (no pun intended) on lenses from two popular brands - Canon and Nikon.
- And I will focus just on their newer lens selection for their newer mirrorless full frame cameras.
(They have many older lenses for their D-SLR cameras but I expect these cameras will eventually be phased out.)

Canon's RF lenses and the ones I might actually buy (if I had the money)

Also see: Canon website

focal (mm) f-stop, etc weight filter price year comment
Zooms:
15-30 4.5-6.3 IS STM 390g (0.86 lb) 67mm $550 2022 Looks like a great more aforadable version of the 14-35 L lens below
15-35 2.8 L IS USM 840g (1.85 lb) 82mm $2,300 2019 I would prefer the lighter and less expensive 14-35 f/4 below or the still less expensive 15-30 above
14-35 4 L IS USM 544 (1.2 lb) 77mm $1,699 2021 I would expect to like/love this lens
24-70 2.8 L IS USM 900g (1.98 lb) 82mm $2,300 2019 I would prefer a lighter and less epensive f/4 version
24-70 4 L IS USM ? ? ? coming eventually I would expect to like/love this lens
24-105 4 L IS USM 700g (1.54 lb) 77mm $1100 2018 a great general purpose lens
24-105 4-7.1 IS STM 395g (0.87 lb) 67mm $400 2020 a good general purpose lens, the one above is a better quality lens (but more expensive)
24-240 4-6.3 IS USM 751g (1.65 lb) 72mm $900 2019 generally 10x zooms sacrifice some quality, but some people might love this lens
28-70 2 USM 1430g (3.15 lb) 95mm $3000 2018 unusually wide aperture for a zoom lens, therefore heavy and expensive
70-200 2.8 L IS USM 1070g (2.36 lb) 77mm $2700 2019 I would prefer a lighter and less epensive f/4 version, but many professionals will buy this lens
70-200 4 L IS USM 695g (1.5 lb) 77mm $1600 2021 I would expect to like/love this lens
100-400 5.6-8 IS USM 635g (1.4 lb) 67mm $650 2021 I would expect to like, but personally would use a 70-200 f/4 lens more often
100-500 4.5-7.1 L IS USM 1365g (3.0 lb) 77mm $2700 2020 I would expect to like, but heavy and expensive
Primes:
5.2 2.8 L Dual Fisheye 352g (0.78 lb) (rear) $2,000 2021 Specialty lens for VR
16 2.8 STM 165g (0.36 lb) 43mm $300 2021 Nice to have. The more expensive 14-35 f/4 or 15-35 f/2.8 zoom would be alternatives
24 1.8 IS STM 270g (0.60 lb) 52mm $600 2022 Nice to have. I'd probably prefer the 15-30 zoom instead
35 1.8 IS STM Macro 305g (0.67 lb) 52mm $500 2018 I would prefer a 15-35 zoom, or 85 or 100 for macro work, note this is only 1:2 macro (not 1:1)
50 1.2 L USM 905g (2.09 lb) 77mm $2,300 2018 I would prefer a lighter and less expensive f/1.4 or f/1.8 version
50 1.4 L USM ? ? ? coming eventually I would expect to like/love this lens
50 1.8 STM 160g (5.6 oz) 43mm $200 2020 I would expect to like this lens but would prefer a slightly better quality f/1.4 L version
85 2 IS STM Macro 500g (1.1 lb) 67mm $600 2020 I would expect to like/love this lens, note this is only 1:2 macro (not 1:1)
85 1.2 L USM 1195g (2.63 lb) 82mm $2,700 2019 I would prefer a lighter and less expensive f.1.4 or f/1.8 version
85 1.2 L USM DS 1195g (2.63 lb) 82mm $3,000 2019 DS stands for Defocus smoothing technology which is a new lens coating
100 Macro 2.8 L IS USM 730g (1.6 lbs) 67mm $1,400 2021 I would expect to like/love this lens, 1.4x magnification (larger than 1:1)
135 1.8 L IS USM 935g (2.1 lbs) 82mm $2,100 2022 I would expect to like this lens but would prefer a lighter and less expensive f/2.8 version
400 2.8 IS USM 2900g (6.4 lb) 55mm $12,000 2021 I don't personally desire such a long, heavy, and expensive lens
600 4 IS USM 3100g (6.8 lb) 52mm $13,000 2021 I don't personally desire such a long, heavy, and expensive lens
600 11 IS STM 930g (2.05 lb) 82mm $700 2020 I don't personally desire such a long lens
Canon does make a few lenses over 600mm in focal length but I'm not going to bother to list them.